Martian Scripting: Prefetching URLs

During the HI-SEAS 2 mission, we tested many implementations of a simulated “delay server”. The delay server was meant to replicate the conditions that a crew on Mars could expect due to the distance, and therefore the speed-of-light delay, from Earth. This caused our e-mail and internet traffic to have a 20-minute one-way delay, and a 40-minute round-trip delay.

For simplicity, one of the early delay server implementations we tested would display a splash page with a 40-minute countdown to simulate the round-trip time that an internet request would take to propagate to Earth and back. Sadly, this meant that we were waiting 40-minutes before we were able to navigate a website.

Obviously, this will not be the method that a Mars mission could expect to use. A Martian base could have a server dedicated to prefetching content from major sites routinely, as well as content a few hyperlinks deep, depending on which crew member was being considered. The experience of browsing the web would be similar to our experience here on Earth, with an odd webpage being unavailable for up to 40-minutes.

From the HI-SEAS habitat, I was able to simulate this behaviour with a clever Automator script originally written by John Gruber, and modified by Dr. Drang entitled “Open URLs in Default Browser”. By converting the Automator workflow to an application, I could set Hazel to launch Safari (or your default web browser) 40 minutes before my morning alarm, and the webpages I specified would be available when I awoke. If you’d like to download the bundle Automator application that I put together, use this link.

You can modify the URL list by first launching Automator on your Mac, and using the File > Open menu to select it. URLs can be added an removed from the ‘Get Specified URLs’ action. Double check that you save this file as an application, otherwise the Automator window will open every time it is launched.

I keep this application, and other scripts in a folder organized into /Documents/Scripts. There, I point Hazel to it, which has a rule called “Prefetch Morning URLs”. The rule only has one condition, namely to check the current time, and then perform an action: Open the Automator application I created. Of course, this means that your computer will have to be on and running for this to work, but you can schedule your computer to wake up using the System Preference > Energy Saver.


If you find yourself routinely opening the same set of tabs, do yourself a favour and spend a few minutes automating the process. Even though I’m no longer on sMars, I continue to use the script so that my morning websites are waiting for me when I get up.

HI-SEAS 3 – Follow the Crew

HI-SEAS 3 is off to the races! The crew will have had entered the Mars Habitat at approximately 4:30 pm HST today, after completing their geological training among the world’s largest volcanoes in Hawaii. This crew will endure a 240-day mission, as long as the two previous HI-SEAS missions put together. The goals of HI-SEAS 3 follow closely on the heels of the previous mission: studying the isolation effects of a long-duration mission on (simulated) Mars.

Since the last crew felt a strong connection to our social media, I thought it would be nice to have a central repository for each crew member’s information.

Martha Lenio – Commander (bio)

Martha will be posting HI-SEAS specific content to her personal blog: MartianAdventures.


Allen Mirkadyrov (bio)

I have been yet unable to find Allen posting on the web, will update.

Sophie Milam (bio)

Sophie will be keeping a HI-SEAS specific blog as well: DomeSoph.

While she isn’t currently a big Twetterer, she expressed an interest in increasing her interaction online.

Neil Scheibelhut (bio)

I haven’t found Neil’s blog yet, but I am looking. Neil is one of the crew whose Instagram account I found, hopefully we’ll see lots of photos there.


Jocelyn Dunn (bio)

Jocelyn is also keeping a blog: FiveStarView.


Zak Wilson(bio)

Zak is also chronicling his aventure on AlmostMars.



Ed Fix and Michael Castro will be filling in if there are any problems that crop up during the mission. When I find their sites I will update this section (or promote them to crew).

My best wishes for the crew as they begin their journey today! I will be following along very closely.

Capturing Memories on Mars

Having the unique opportunity to participate in HI-SEAS, I wanted to be able to capture every aspect of the mission. Here are the tools I’ve used to chronicle me experience here. If you’ve been following along you may know a little bit about my kit, but here is a mini-review of each one.

1. Olympus OM-D EM-5 (McBain)

This is my main camera for the mission, which I purchased specifically for taking stills and time lapses. The entirety of the photos in my Flickr Albums were taken with this camera. This is my first interchangeable lens camera (it’s an Olympus micro-4/3rds camera), and I’ve had a lot of fun playing with a range of lenses (see below).

2. iPhone 5s 64 GB (Apple)

This is my daily smartphone, and to adapt it for the mission I popped out the SIM card and run it in airplane mode. I use it sparingly for posting updates on InstagramFacebook, and Twitter! It’s also used as my podcast and music listening device of choice, and there are a few apps that I purchased specifically for the mission.

The app that it’s currently running is Triggertrap Mobile app, which turns my iPhone into a very flexible intervalometer for doing time lapses (like this one) and long-exposures like this:


3. Triggertrap Mobile Dongle (Triggertrap)

The Triggertrap Mobile Dongle is a simple cable that connects my iPhone (with the Triggertrap Mobile app) to my Olympus camera. That being said, it offers me a powerful set of tools (and I feel like I’ve barely scratched the surface). In addition to timelapses and long exposures, the Triggertrap offered me something that I didn’t even consider prior to the mission: the ability to operate my camera while in a spacesuit. This was especially useful at night when we were developing hand signals while out on EVA, because I could use a stylus to operate the camera from the Triggertrap app:


4. GoPro Hero 3+ Black (MemoryExpress)

Although the Olympus camera has some incredible video settings, the GoPro proved useful because of it’s size. In many photos of our EVAs, you can see participants wearing the GoPro on their helmets. This allowed us to record hands-free, or using the GoPole (see below) offered a unique perspective. Almost my entire LogiCON 2014 presentation was recorded with the GoPro.

5. iPad Mini Retina (Apple) with Otterbox Defender Series Case (Amazon)

The iPad mini served a very important purpose for us on our EVA missions. It was by far the easiest GPS device to use. Paired with the Otterbox Defender Series Case, the iPad took quite the beating while out on EVA, with no physical damage to the iPad itself. The app being displayed is GaiaGPS, which can incredibly download and save for offline viewing the entire Island of Hawaii’s Google satellite view.

6. Apogee 96k MiC (Apple)

While rarely used, the Apogee MiC was originally purchased so I could record my own podcast while in the dome. Unfortunately, we were much busier than I anticipated, so there is only one episode available so far. I’ll try to record another podcast post-mission.

7. Panasonic LUMIX 14mm F2.5 Lens (McBain)

The 14 mm lens is the most used lens in our arsenal, mainly because most of the photos that we take are either inside the habitat (and so close to the subject) or outside on EVA (and hence landscape). I’m very impressed with the performance of this lens, especially how quickly it autofocuses.

8. Olympus PEN MSC 45mm F1.8 Lens (McBain)

I bought the 45 mm lens after being blown away by the kinds of portraits it could shoot. Since it’s a fixed focal length lens with a long focal distance, it means that to shoot a good photo, you have to be fairly far from the subject. In the habitat, that means you need to be halfway to the other side of the dome in order to get enough of your subject in the frame. My favourite photo from this lens is a portrait of Lucie Poulet:


9. Canon 600 mm Zoom Lens (Courtesy of Dr. Ron Williams)

I used this lens on occasion for astrophotography, but unfortunately it’s one of the most difficult lenses to operate in a spacesuit since it is a Canon lens on an adapter for the Olympus body. That means that focus and zoom are completely manual operations, which isn’t an easy task when your trying to set up a shot of the Moon.

10. Olympus 12-40 mm Zoom Lens (McBain) in Nauticam Port & Zoom Ring Kit (International Diving Centre)

Another rarely used lens, this one came with the EM-5 as part of the kit. The Zoom Ring Kit lets me use this with the…

11. Nauticam Olympus EM-5 Underwater Housing (International Diving Centre)

This is a proper scuba housing for the EM-5, and because there aren’t lakes and oceans on Mars, I haven’t been able to try this guy out to it’s potential. I wanted to have the Nauticam housing so I could carry my camera on EVA and use all the controls with the thick EVA gloves on, but it ended up being to difficult to see the display through the back panel, so I only brought it out on a few occasions.

I am, however, looking forward to getting this kit wet scuba diving after the mission!

12. GoPole Grenade Grip (Futureshop) with GoPro The Frame (Amazon)

Just a handy little housing that I used for filming inside of the habitat. With The Frame, you get much better audio than you do with the regular waterproof GoPro housing, so most of my indoor footage was shot with the two in combination.

13. GoPro Quick Release Suction Cup (MemoryExpress)

Pretty straightforward little device. Press the suction cup against something smooth and go! We used the suction cup all the time when filming from within the MX-C suits, because we could stick it right to the helmet!

Ross takes a GigaPan image of the HI-SEAS environment. Photo by Annie Caraccio.

14. Joby Gorillapod Hybrid Tripod (Mountain Equipment Co-op)

Purchased mainly to hold the Apogee MiC, the Gorillapod has been handy to quickly set up a GoPro for recording. Wherever the big tripod can’t fit, the Gorillapod takes over.

15. GoPole REACH Telescoping Extension Pole (MemoryExpress)

This is the extension arm I use to shoot a lot of the outdoor footage in the LogiCON presentation. It allows you to get the GoPro far enough away so that you get your self(ie) in the frame, along with a lot of interesting landscapes!

16. Power Pond 1C Powerbank (Mountain Equipment Co-op)

This nifty little battery has come in handy for a variety of reasons. First of which, it’s primary purpose, to charge things! I’ve used it to charge up my iPhone while running a timelapse, when a plug-in charger wouldn’t cut it (on top of a mountain for example). The Power Pond has a built in flashlight, laser, and UV light as well, which have been used on several occasions (the next HI-SEAS crew should look for hidden messages written with laundry detergent (it fluoresces)).

Overall, my kit has served me very well with my outreach efforts, and there are still lots of pictures and videos that I haven’t had the time to publish. Over the next year or so, expect that I’ll be digging up a few photos and videos!

Elementary, my dear Martian

Many schools in Alberta and British Columbia have e-mailed me about my HI-SEAS adventure, and it would be a waste not to share some of the awesome questions I’ve been asked! These questions were asked by the students in Mme. Spreen and Mme. Merriman’s grade 4 and 7 classes from École Coloniale Estates School in Beaumont, Alberta. Answering them was a hoot!

1. If you are to actually go to Mars, would you be nervous?

Yes, of course! Feeling nervous is a common emotion when you are aware of the possibility of something going wrong. It’s a healthy emotion that tells us to pay attention to our surroundings so that we don’t miss something that could hurt us. What would I be nervous about on Mars? Well, lots of things! On Mars, the atmosphere is very thin compared to Earth, and there is too little oxygen for humans to survive. We will have to bring sealed spaceships to Mars that keep their own atmosphere, one little leak might cause all the air to escape if it wasn’t caught quickly! There are many potential dangers for travel to Mars, so it would be quite natural for someone going there to feel nervous!

2. Why are Mars rocks reddish brown?

The rocks on Mars (and where I am on Mauna Loa) are rich in the element Iron (Fe). When Iron comes into contact with Oxygen (the important part of the air we breath) it forms a compound known as Iron Oxide. You may know that iron is fairly common in your daily life, and you’ll be able to identify Iron Oxide as something common… Rust! Yes, Mars is red because the iron in the soil was in contact with oxygen long ago, and most of the surface now is rich in minerals that contain Iron Oxide. Here’s a picture I took not long ago illustrating the colours:


Here’s something that you might enjoy, iron oxide is also responsible for the colour of blood. Hemoglobin is a protein that carries oxygen in your blood, and the iron in it is responsible for the red coloration. Your blood is red for the same reason Mars is red!

3. What would happen if you ran out of food, oxygen, or water on Mars?

Well, a trip to Mars would need to bring along a lot of food, and typically you’d pack enough for your entire stay, that goes the same for oxygen and water too. BUT what if something bad happened that depleted one of those resources? Well, Martian astronauts would need to get very creative, very quickly. Water, as you probably already know, is a molecule of one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms. So if we ran out of oxygen, we’d just need to separate the two components of water (a process called electrolysis works well to do this). What if we ran out of water instead? Well, if we had the time, we could travel to the Martian polar ice caps, and harvest ice there, or even drill down into the Martian soil and hope to find it there. But, we could also look carefully at our rocket fuel… which is made up of oxygen and hydrogen! By carefully burning the rocket fuel, we’d be able to make water! Food is much more difficult to answer… Could we survive long enough without food to make it home? Maybe. Could we grow our own food in a greenhouse? Yes! But that takes a lot of time and planning. Hopefully something future Martians will think about a lot!

Here’s a picture of the plants we are growing at HI-SEAS:


4. What qualified you to be part of HI-SEAS?

Well, for a start, I am a physicist. That means that I worked hard and did well in science and math. Second, I’m a friendly guy, which means that I get along well with others, this is important if I’m going to spend 4 months with 5 people in the same space as your classroom! Third, I like to learn all the time and solve problems. You probably hear your teachers talking about this all the time, but it’s true! If you are inspired by a particular problem, do a science project on it, ask questions to a local scientist, look up the answers on the internet! Do whatever you can to feed your curiosity, and you’ll build a strong foundation to reach for your dreams!

5. What do the other people on this mission do?

This would be a long answer if I went into detail, so I’ll try to keep it short. Casey, our commander, is mostly interested in the geology (the rocks and volcanoes) nearby, so he spends a lot of time and effort learning about the formation of the volcanic regions in Hawaii and in the Tharsis region on Mars. Lucie is in charge of the plant studies, and she’s grown several crops of lettuce, tomatoes, and peas from the soil around the habitat. Annie is a chemical engineer that is interested in recycling waste on future space missions, so she carefully monitors how much garbage we make and recycles what we can to reduce our impact on the environment. Tiffany is responsible for the spacewalks, so she maintains and repairs the suits so that we can go outside to collect samples for our research. I’m working on a 3D printed tools project where we test surgical instruments that were made with plastic in a 3D printer!

Other than that, we all share the work doing chores and making meals for each other. Chores include laundry, cleaning the bathrooms, vacuuming, everything you do at home.

6. Do you have a way to get extra water if you are out?

We can get a little bit of water from the rain here on Mauna Loa, but it doesn’t rain often, so if we ran out of water, we’d be in big trouble. For the HI-SEAS mission, there is a water deliver truck that comes up the mountain to refill our water tanks every 20 days or so. We carefully monitor how much water we have left so that we know when to call them. Here is a chart of our water over the last 21 days!


7. How would you build everything from the habitat on Mars?

You would bring most of the materials with you. Our dome would probably be made out of an inflatable material, plastic or a synthetic material. The rectangular block that houses our workshop would probably be part of the rocket that brought us down to the surface. Everything is recycled and nothing is wasted. Here’s a picture of me in front of the habitat.


8. What is the most common thing you cook?

Well, we haven’t made the same thing twice! But we have lots of dehydrated fruits, vegetables and meats, so we are mostly working through our stores of those things. Soups are by far the easiest thing for us to make, because everything needs water to be added to it to rehydrate it anyway. We have a few treats while we are in here, like a couple of bags of chips and a couple of those small Halloween chocolate bars, but they have to last us the entire 4 months!

9. Do you believe in aliens?

Another difficult question! I believe that aliens exist, but I have never seen any compelling evidence that they have visited our solar system! As you probably know, scientists have found lots of planets orbiting stars throughout our galaxy, but so far, they haven’t been able to tell whether or not those planets harbour life, much less whether there is intelligent life out there! I believe that we will discover life outside of the solar system within 10 years, but I don’t think it will be the kind of aliens that we see on TV or in the movies, unfortunately.

10. What is the biodome made of?

Our dome is made out of a geodesic frame of stainless steel, with two layers of plastic. The outer layer is a waterproof plastic, like a tarp, that repels water and wind, and the inner covering is made of a soft material that insulates the dome, kind of like a multilayered blanket. The dome is very strong, because of it’s shape. You may have seen smaller versions of these spherical “cages” at playgrounds, although most modern schools don’t have them anymore because they are pretty dangerous!

11. Do you think it rains on Jupiter?

Oh absolutely! I rains on almost every planet! Even Mars! It’s WHAT is raining that’s interesting! Did you know that on Saturn’s moon Titan, it rains a molecule called Methane!! In fact, Titan has lakes and rivers and oceans of methane, just like Earth has lakes and rivers and oceans of water. Now here comes the most interesting part, methane is a component of flatulence… You heard that right, on Titan it rains FARTS!

(Ross: Hahaha, sorry Theresa and Amanda, cut those last two sentences out if you think it’s over a line.

Amanda: Raining farts … bahahahaaaa. Perfect middle school humour. They will love it.).

12. Have you ever had to scrub bird poop off the solar panels?

Nope! There are no birds up here! We are at an elevation of 2,500 meters above sea level! Almost nothing grows up here, so there is no food for birds. I haven’t seen a bird since the day we left Hilo to go to the habitat! There is the occasional butterfly or spider that I see, but they are so rare it’s a marvel when we see them. Even humans have a hard time surviving at this elevation. There is a condition called Mountain Sickness (Monge’s disease) that makes humans feel tired and confused if they aren’t able to adapt to high altitudes (sometimes I feel tired and confused here)!

13. What happens if you have a fire?

We’d grab the nearest fire extinguisher and put it out!!!! Then we’d call 911, and wait an hour and a half for help to arrive! But there is very little that can light a fire up here, in fact, we don’t have matches or lighters or anything, just like real spaceships. If we really really needed to make a fire (for heat, let’s say) we’d have a hard time making it!

14. How do you get more food if you run out?

We grow it! Lucie has a bunch of plants that we could eat if we ran out of food, but we planned well in advance and we have lots of food left for the last month of the mission.

15. What material is the space suit made out of?

There are two types of suits that we have here, hazmat suits, which are just made out of heavy plastic, and our spacesuit analogs, the MX-C’s, which have a whole bunch of features. They have an inner lining of soft fabric, then a shell with a backpack for all the suit’s electronics and water cooling. Then an outer layer of white fabric which is more durable to protect us when we fall. Real spacesuits would be made from very expensive synthetic materials and have all sorts of sensors to alert the occupant to danger.

Here’s a picture of me in the suit, and Annie and Lucie on a spacewalk.



16. What do you do for fun?

We have lots of options for having fun! First, we can plan a fun spacewalk and go exploring! We even go out at night in spacesuits and take pictures of the stars (how would Mars’ sky differ from Earth’s?). If we want to stay inside, we have boardgames to play with each other, and a projector where we can watch movies and TV shows that we brought along with us. We also have our computers, and one of my favourite things to do is play a few minutes of Minecraft now and then!

17. How could you get air on the space station?

You need to bring it with you! Lots of the things that are sent up to the space station are just tanks of gas for the astronauts to breathe! Unfortunately, we don’t yet have the technology to grab an asteroid and extract gases from it (many of them have water, hint hint) but that’s a problem that we are working on, and that future scientists like yourselves may find a solution for!

18. Does the bathroom smell because of the compost?

Most of the time, no. The bathroom doesn’t smell at all usually. But… Every two days the composting drum needs to be rotated (we used to rotate it every time we used it, but now only once every two days), and when it gets rotated the stench is HORRIBLE. For about two minutes. The fans in the bathroom draw the smells outside right away. I rotate the drum after everyone has gone to bed, and I close the bathroom door behind me so that I don’t have to smell it.

19. Is it hard to get your space suit on?

Yes, it is very difficult. It always takes two people to get a suit on, and sometimes it takes three. That’s because the backpack of the suit is so heavy, someone needs to be there to help lift it while you get into the suit. Other than that, operating the suit is pretty easy, and you can easily go two hours before you need to take it off.

20. Why do you have a Hazmat suit to use when you go on an EVA?

Very good question! The first reason is that there are only two of the white MX-C’s, and there are 4 of us that go out sometimes, so we need the hazmats for the other two. The second reason is by far the most important… Remember that we need help getting into the suits? Well, we also need help getting out of them. So we take the worst case scenario and practice it. What would happen if an MX-C suit caught on fire??? Someone would need to be there to help the person get out. It’s very easy to get out of the hazmat suits, but very hard to get out of the MX-Cs, so we always send a hazmat helper along in case the worst scenario happens. So far we haven’t had any trouble.


I enjoyed answering all your questions, and I wish you a very exciting summer! Make sure to think about some of the things you asked and what you’d do differently if you were travelling to Mars! It might be fun one night to set up a tent and pretend that you are on a Mars mission too! Pack all your food and water, and imagine what it would be like to live on another planet!